Lithium from high entropy environments
In MAXergy we use the ocean as reference environment for regeneration of depleting metal and mineral resources: its the circular energy required to restore the cycle, or better: stocks, to prevent decrease in quality in the earth system. (counterentropy) We have calculated some materials this way, but it seems that also in practice the focus is shifting form mining landscapes to harvest from high entropy environments: below is an example of a study for harvesting lithium from ocean water. For MAXergy we need to recalculate this at some moment into Embodied land.
Innovative lithium recovery technique from seawater by using world-first dialysis with a lithium ionic superconductor by Tsuyoshi Hoshino: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0011916414006560
by the way, MAXergy and the closing cycles calculation tool is not meant to promote ocean water and ocean bed harvesting: its meant to provide a regeneration indicator (embodied land) for the impact of using metals and minerals, as compared to other , mostly biobased solutions regeneration, requiring land or space for solar energy.
(on the topic of ocean harvesting sea here: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-steiner/deep-sea-mining-new-threa_b_8334428.html